Because we are asked so many questions about our projects, the Cape Leopard Trust has composed a FAQ section. Here are some of the common questions we are asked on a regular basis and the answers we provide. If you cannot find an answer to your question here, please do not hesitate to contact us.
What does the Cape Leopard Trust do?
How did the Cape Leopard Trust start?
Where is the CLT based?
How many leopards are there in the Cederberg?
How many Cape leopards are left?
Where do the Cape leopards occur?
What is special about Cape leopards?
What is a ‘tier’?
What is the difference between a leopard and a cheetah?
Are the Cape leopards endangered?
Why are leopards important?
What are the main threats to Cape leopards?
How many cubs does a leopard have and how often?
What do leopards eat?
Do leopards eat baboons?
What does a leopard track look like?
Where can I get a good photo of a Cape leopard?
Are the Cape leopards dangerous?
What must I do if I see a leopard?
How can I see a Cape leopard?
What kind of camera traps do you use?
Where can I get a camera trap?
How do you collar your leopards?
How do you stop leopards from killing livestock?
How do you stop people from killing leopards?
How do you fund the project?
What can I do to get involved?
Where can I get a Cape Leopard Trust T-shirt?
Does the CLT do talks?
How can I book an education camp?
The Cape Leopard Trust was launched in 2004 as an active predator conservation working group in the Cape. It uses research as a tool for conservation, finding solutions to human-wildlife conflict and inspiring interest in the environment through an interactive and dynamic environmental education programme. Since its inception, it has become an authority on predator conservation in the Cape, and one of the leading authorities in SA.
The project was initiated in the Cederberg studying the ecology of the Cape mountain leopard, a highly elusive predator differing in many respects to its northern counterparts. The Cape Leopard Trust has grown quickly to include initiatives in the Boland mountains, and Gouritz region as well as launching the Cape Leopard Trust Education Programme, Cederberg Caracal Project and Black Eagle Project.
Dr Quinton Martins began his study of leopards in the Cederberg Mountains in 2003. Hiking in these mountains, he found signs of leopards, but was shocked at how many were being killed. He realised that more than research was necessary.
Quinton sold all his valuables, including his cameras and his car to fund his work, hitching lifts to the Cederberg and getting free accommodation at Oasis backpackers. It was only after receiving his first financial support on meeting Johan van der Westhuizen, a landowner from the Cederberg that Quinton realised other people might be interested in funding the work he was doing. Together, they set up the Cape Leopard Trust in 2004. This was followed by a hugely successful fundraising event, in which Leopard's Leap Wines and Rand Merchant Bank Fund pledged their support. Since then, the Cape Leopard Trust has grown from strength to strength, with Quinton having obtained his PhD on the Cederberg leopards.
The Cape Leopard Trust has an administrative office in Cape Town, while its headquarters are in the Matjiesrivier Nature Reserve, Cederberg. The Cape Leopard Trust also has a project base in the Boland mountains (run from Franschhoek) and the Gouritz Corridor (run from Gamkaberg Nature Reserve).
In Quinton's study area (3000km², in the Cederberg area) there are approximately 30 - 35 adult male and female leopards.
We are not sure. However, if one considers that there are only 35 in a 3000km² area in the Cederberg, and one takes into account that the Cape leopards only occur in wild mountainous areas their numbers must be low. We are currently doing studies in the Gouritz Corridor and the Boland mountains that will give us a better estimate of the population of leopards in the Cape.
The Cape leopards occur in the rocky and mountainous regions of the Cape.
Cape leopards are much smaller than those found elsewhere in Africa, being about half the mass. On average, the females weigh about 20kg and the males about 35kg. The Cape leopards also have exceptionally large home ranges:
|Leopards in Kruger:||Leopards in Cederberg:|
|Male: 25 - 50km²||Male: 200 - 1000km²|
|Female: 10 - 25km²||Female: 80 - 180km²|
The genetic status of the Cape leopards is currently under investigation. It is clear that there are genetic differences, but whether they are a sub-species or only a separate management unit, has yet to be proven.
Directly translated a 'tier' is a tiger in Afrikaans but many people use it to describe leopards this is derived from the original name 'Tyger' used by early European settlers in the Cape.
Although leopards and cheetahs are both large cats, they are designed quite differently. Leopards hunt by stalking their prey, getting really close and pouncing. They also often drag their prey into trees, although they can't really do this in the Cape mountains due to the distinct lack of appropriate trees. Leopards are therefore stocky and strong.
Cheetahs on the other hand, are designed for speed, chasing their prey over longer distances, mostly in open terrain. They therefore have a light build and long legs. Another difference is in their markings – a leopard has rosettes (rings of spots) whereas a cheetah only has individual spots. Cheetahs also have characteristic black 'tear marks' on their faces.
Because of their low densities, large home ranges and limited suitable habitat leopards in the Cape are far more threatened than many other leopard populations.
Apart from being beautiful, enigmatic creatures that epitomise wilderness they are also the top predator in the Cape and by doing what is necessary to protect them we can simultaneously protect all the other animals that inhabit their ecosystem. Apex predators such as the leopard play a vital role in ensuring functioning ecosystems.
The main threats to Cape leopards are habitat loss due to development, and extermination by people trying to protect their livestock. Natural threats, especially to cubs, include other predators such as Black Eagles, snakes, disease and malnutrition. Leopards are also known to kill each other when vying for territory, or killing another leopards' cubs when moving into a vacant territory.
There are normally two to three cubs in a litter. If a female is successful in raising young, the inter-birthing period is 18 months to about two years. Very little is known about the reproduction of the Cape leopard. It is a very tough environment and from observations in the Cederberg there seems to be a high mortality rate (at least 50%, probably much higher), especially when cubs are in their first few months.
Even when they are older (juveniles) they are still in danger, especially from other territorial leopards. Until males are about 4-5 years old, they have to find a way to survive in other dominant males' territories, so they appear to be very careful not to make their presence obvious. The females are ready to breed at about three years. In the Cederberg a long-term research project is being conducted in order to observe population trends over time, such as leopard densities and survival rate.
Leopards in the Cape have quite a broad diet, eating things that range in size from a cow to a lizard. However, their main diet in the Cederberg is klipspringer and dassies (rock hyrax), and to a lesser extent other antelope as well as porcupine.
From data collected in the Cederberg and Gouritz region, it is clear that baboons are seldom eaten (<4% % in a diet study). These would most likely have been opportunistic, or by an individual who has developed a preference for this dangerous meal. Generally, it is something of a myth that baboons are a leopard's favourite prey item. Certainly the Cape leopards, with their small builds, would have a tough time taking on a troop of baboons! That said some individuals do kills baboons, such as one of the Gouritz leopards.
The first thing is to make sure that a track is a cat track – cats have retractable claws, so you usually won't see any claw marks. They also have two indentations on the back of the main pad, creating three bulges. Then check the size – on firm substrate, a Cape leopard's track is between 6,5cm and 8,5cm from the front of the longest toe to the back of the main pad. The tracks are females are smaller than the tracks of males, and a leopard's front feet are bigger and rounder than its hind feet.
Male leopard track, measuring the front paw print
There are no professional quality photos of wild Cape leopards that we are aware of. The Cape Leopard Trust has many good leopard photos from camera trap pictures; however, these are generally not high-resolution images.
Due to their small size and elusive nature, the Cape leopards are not considered to be a danger to people. There are no reports of attacks on people. However, if one were to corner a Cape leopard, or threaten a female's cubs, they could be very dangerous.
If you are ever lucky enough to see a Cape leopard, enjoy the experience! Watch it and if you can, take a photo. Usually these leopards will move off quickly if they come into contact with people. Best not to run away, it may think that you are prey.
Cape leopards are incredibly elusive and very seldom seen. Most sightings are pure chance. That said, if you are in the Cape mountains, keep your eyes and ears open as there are certain indicators that a predator is in the area.
Listen out for birds and animals alarm calling – almost all animals have particular sounds that they make to warn others of the presence of a predator. If you see Black eagles dive-bombing an animal, they are probably going for a leopard and you may therefore have a chance of seeing it. Also look out for fresh leopard tracks.
We mainly use Cuddeback cameras, digital infrared cameras that are triggered by motion and heat.
You can either sponsor one through us, or we can provide you with the details of the company we use.
Human-wildlife conflict is a complex issue but there are various methods, which can be used in combinations depending on the circumstances. These include Anatolian sheep dogs or livestock guardian dogs, traditional herding and keeping livestock in an adequately fenced leopard-proof kraal at night.
Livestock farmers are often in a difficult situation but it is important for them to understand that they need to protect their livestock. Killing predators such as leopards does not solve their problems as new leopards move in to take over the vacant territory. All predators fulfil a vital function in our ecosystem – without them, adverse knock-on effects are likely to be experienced.
The Cape Leopard Trust is a Non Profit Organisation, sponsored primarily by corporate funders, trust funds and private donors. To support the Cape Leopard Trust, click here.
There are numerous ways of getting involved:
- Spread awareness of the CLT
- Adopt a Spot
- Sponsor a camera trap
- Sponsor a school camp for disadvantaged children
- Make a general donation or donate to a specific CLT project
The Cape Leopard Trust has a variety of merchandise. To see what items we sell, click here.
Yes, we are happy to do presentations (and no, we DON'T bring along a tame leopard!) where we request our costs are covered at a minimum charge. Further donations are most welcome. We also do school presentations, at no charge.
Please email Elizabeth Martins on [email protected] or call on 027 482 9923.